“As many as 20% to 30% of patients receive contradicted care,” meaning they received care they should not have received.
The Institute of Medicine, (now known as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine), released a report (“To Err is Human“), quoted in the JAMA article, which stated that “Millions of Americans have learned, for the first time, that an estimated 44,000 to 98,000 among them died each year as a result of medical errors.”
“The U.S. estimates the combined effect of errors and adverse effects that occur because of iatrogenic [physician caused] damage, not associated with recognizable error, include 12,000 deaths a year from unnecessary surgery. 7,000 deaths a year from medication errors in hospitals. 20,000 deaths a year from other errors in hospitals. And 80,000 deaths a year from nosocomial infections in hospitals. These total 225,000 deaths per year from iatrogenic causes.”
A different analysis was mentioned in the JAMA article which estimated negative side effects on outpatients (those not in hospitals), without including deaths. It concluded that a surprising number of patients are so damaged by the drug and the other treatments, that they must make an immense number of additional trips to see the doctor or go to the hospital.
“One analysis [which did not include deaths] concluded that between 4% and 18% of consecutive patients experience adverse effects in outpatient settings, with (resulting in) 116 million extra physician visits, 77 million extra prescriptions, 17 million emergency department visits, 8 million hospitalizations, 3 million long-term admissions, 199,000 additional deaths, and $77 billion dollars in extra costs.”